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工业 Industrial

“工业”这个词作为一种音乐形式及风格出现并发展于20世纪后半叶,伴随着当时文化思潮而存在。任何一种风格都是受环境影响而诞生的,正应了那句话:“环境铸造人”,什么样的环境决定什么样的艺术家,什么样的艺术家决定什么样的音乐,工业最为典型。
工业音乐产生于20世纪70年代,于80年代得到长足发展,90年代至今分化融解。当时的欧美人文思潮推崇未来主义、达达主义和超现实主义,又正是信息化与产业化成熟的阶段,更赶上工业化(这里用的是本义)流水线式的生产结构基本成熟,于是工业音乐应运而生。尤其第三点,很形象解释了此种风格诞生的原因和起源,正如“哥特”音乐的本质来源于古典、取材于诞生于欧洲中世纪教会统治时期哥特建筑一样。所以说,音乐的形成是历史文化的体现。

Industrial music is a style of experimental music that draws on transgressive and provocative themes. The term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by the band Throbbing Gristle, and the creation of the slogan "industrial music for industrial people". In general, the style is harsh and challenging. Allmusic defines industrial as the "most abrasive and aggressive fusion of rock and electronic music"; "initially a blend of avant-garde electronics experiments (tape music, musique concrète, white noise, synthesizers, sequencers, etc.) and punk provocation". 
The first industrial artists experimented with noise and aesthetically controversial topics, musically and visually, such as fascism, serial killers and the occult. Their production was not limited to music, but included mail art, performance art, installation pieces and other art forms. Prominent industrial musicians include Throbbing Gristle, SPK, Boyd Rice, Cabaret Voltaire, and Z'EV. The precursors that influenced the development of the genre included acts such as electronic group Kraftwerk, experimental rock acts such as The Velvet Underground and Frank Zappa, psychedelic rock artists such as Jimi Hendrix, and composers such as John Cage. Musicians also cite writers such as William S. Burroughs, and philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche as influences.
While the term was initially self-applied by a small coterie of groups and individuals associated with Industrial Records in the 1970s, it broadened to include artists influenced by the original movement or using an "industrial" aesthetic. These artists expanded the genre by pushing it into noisier and more electronic directions. Over time, its influence spread into and blended with styles including ambient and rock, all of which now fall under the post-industrial music label. Electro-industrial music is a primary sub-genre that developed in the 1980s. The two other most notable hybrid genres are industrial rock and industrial metal, which include bands such as Nine Inch Nails and Ministry, both of which released platinum-selling albums in the 1990s. These three genres are often referred to as simply industrial.



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