摇摆乐 Swing

当新奥尔良爵士乐已经创造了即兴演奏的合奏之时,爵士乐在二十年代在美国社会逐渐流行起来,同时对于爵士乐的需要要求增加更多的舞蹈乐队。因此出现了对乐队的新要求,即在乐队拥有三支乃至四支号的时候,合奏的地位要降低。1924年,当Louis Armstrong加入了Fletcher Henderson的大乐队时,就可以算作是摇摆大乐队最早的出现。乐队中的唐•雷德曼的编曲大大辉映了短号手的松弛的演奏风格。真正摇摆乐在流行乐坛的确立则要算是1935年Benny Goodman大乐队的成功,直至1946年大乐队时代的结束为止,摇摆乐一直是美国流行音乐的一支重要的力量。摇摆乐不同于先前的新奥尔良爵士乐和迪克西兰爵士乐,通常乐队中的合奏更为简化,同时是作为更为成熟的独奏之间的反复演奏的连复段。而个人的即兴演奏也是主要是密切的建立在旋律的基础之上,其原因主要是由于音乐技法的进步。同以前的演奏相比,独奏的演绎更具有冒险性。在大乐队时代结束之后,摇摆乐风格的音乐家仍然坚持这种风格演出,他们的演奏堪称是一种主流的爵士乐。

While New Orleans jazz has improvised ensembles, when jazz started becoming popular in the 1920s and demand was growing for larger dance bands, it became necessary for ensembles to be written down, particularly when a group included more than three or four horns. Although swing largely began when Louis Armstrong joined Fletcher Henderson's Orchestra in 1924 and Don Redmanbegan writing arrangements for the band that echoed the cornetist's relaxed phrases, the swing era officially started in 1935 whenBenny Goodman's Orchestra caught on. Swing was a major force in American popular music until the big-band era largely ended in 1946. Swing differs from New Orleans jazz and Dixieland in that the ensembles (even for small groups) are simpler and generally filled with repetitious riffs, while in contrast the solos are more sophisticated. Individual improvisations still paid close attention to the melody but due to the advance in musicianship, the solo flights were more adventurous. The swing-oriented musicians who continued performing in the style after the end of the big band era (along with later generations who adopted this approach) were also playing "mainstream." The many stars of swing during the big-band era included trumpeters Louis Armstrong, Bunny Berigan,Harry James, and Roy Eldridge; trombonists Tommy Dorsey and Jack Teagarden; clarinetists Benny Goodman and Artie Shaw; tenor saxophonists Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young, and Ben Webster; altoists Johnny Hodges and Benny Carter; pianists Teddy Wilson, Art Tatum, Earl Hines, Count Basie, and Nat King Cole; guitarist Charlie Christian; drummers Gene Krupa and Chick Webb; vibraphonistLionel Hampton; bandleader Glenn Miller; and singers Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, and Jimmy Rushing.

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