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歌剧 Opera

歌剧(opera)是将音乐(声乐与器乐)、戏剧(剧本与表演)、文学(诗歌)、舞蹈(民间舞与芭蕾)、舞台美术等融为一体的综合性艺术,通常由咏叹调、宣叙调、重唱、合唱、序曲、间奏曲、舞蹈场面等组成(有时也用说白和朗诵)。早在古希腊的戏剧中,就有合唱队的伴唱,有些朗诵甚至也以歌唱的形式出现;中世纪以宗教故事为题材,宣扬宗教观点的神迹剧等亦香火缭绕,持续不断。但真正称得上“音乐的戏剧”的近代西洋歌剧,却是16世纪末、17世纪初,随着文艺复兴时期音乐文化的世俗化而应运产生的。

An opera is a stage work accompanied by music in which all or most of the dialogue is sung. Opera was invented around the turn of the 17th century by a group of Florentine musicians who were trying to replicate the form of Greek theatre in which drama and music were combined. One of their members, Claudio Monteverdi, wrote the first great opera, Orfeo, in 1607. Virtuoso singing soon came to be a central element, and many operas give the singers the opportunity for spectacular vocal display. The subject matter of operas can be as diverse as that of plays, and the musical styles reflect the vast variety of all music. Operas may range from the small and intimate to the most extravagantly grand, but in the best of them, the music and drama work together to heighten the intensity of each other, making opera one of the most emotionally potent art forms.



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