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管弦乐 Orchestral

管弦乐是随着16,17世纪声乐与器乐的发展逐渐形成的,到了18世后,海顿确立了管弦乐队编制和主调音乐样式;莫扎特则进一步加以肯定,贝多芬以交响性、戏剧性手法写作管弦乐序曲。19世纪到20世纪管弦乐发展达到鼎盛时期,一大批优秀作曲家与优秀作品相继出现。

Orchestral music originated in the late 16th century stage spectacles and 17th century opera orchestras. The word "orchestra" came into common use in the 18th century, when music of the Baroque and Classical eras often was composed for specific occasions. Incidental music to accompany plays was also important in the Classical and early Romantic eras. The Romantics threw off the constraints of pre-established forms and luxuriated in the possibilities offered by the expansion of instruments available. Liszt pioneered the tone poem or symphonic poem. Orchestral dances like "On the Beautiful Blue Danube" have lost none of their popularity. For much of the 20th century, the orchestra stood at the center of community life in classical music, and new works appeared accordingly. The success of pieces like John Adams' "A Short Ride in a Fast Machine," shows that the orchestra remains a vital medium, even in an age of high technology.



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