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声乐 Vocal Music

声乐是由一个或多个歌手表演的音乐形式,使用乐器伴奏与否皆可,而人声是作品的重点。含有人声但重点不在其上的乐曲一般称作器乐(如古斯塔夫·霍尔斯特的《行星组曲》中没有歌词的女声合唱)。没有乐器伴奏的的合唱曲则通常称为无伴奏合唱。

对于声乐而言,相当多声乐作品(部份或全部)为模仿其他声音或纯粹内容抽象,而运用非语言音节甚或是噪音,然而一般人特别注意歌词的使用。较短小且含有歌词的声乐作品常称为歌曲。

声乐也许是最古老的音乐形式,因为它不需要任何乐器,仅仅人声便可。在各种音乐文化中都存在着某种形式的声乐。语言和音乐目的虽不同,皆有共同的音乐因子。

Vocal music can describe any music produced by the human voice, but is generally differentiated from choral music, which is sung by large groups. Because its instrument is the body itself, it is the most primal music produced by humans and is common to all cultures. It is most frequently expressed as song, words sung to a melody. At least since the Middle Ages, songs have commonly been accompanied by a string instrument, often played by the singer, a tradition that continues to the present. Art songs with piano accompaniment often gathered into thematically-related cycles, came to prominence in the 19th century in the works of Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, and Wolf. Nearly all European composers of the era wrote songs. Post-Romantic composers like Mahler and Richard Strauss popularized songs and song cycles with orchestral accompaniment, and songs have been significant in the output of modern composers such as Poulenc, Britten, and Barber.



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