波普 Bop

可以看作是现代爵士的前身,由演奏摇摆乐的小乐队发展而来,注重表现演奏技巧和复杂和声,而不是演奏适合人演唱的旋律,这种风格影响了以后各种爵士乐。波普的发展为独奏和伴奏的乐手都开辟了新的天地,产生了许多新意,鼓手开始不再依恋Bass Drum,而开始大量运用Cymbal和Hi-hat.而Bass则担当低音节奏,演奏着近乎无视于人的游移四分音符低音旋律,维持着音乐的和弦进行。而钢琴手则不再过分强调左手的拍子和和弦基础音,而是喜欢用更轻的触键来演奏。这样,现代爵士的雏形就产生了。其代表乐手是Lester. Young和Coleman hawkins.

Also known as bebop, Bop was a radical new music that developed gradually in the early '40s and exploded in 1945. The main difference between bop and swing is that the soloists engaged in chordal (rather than melodic) improvisation, often discarding the melody altogether after the first chorus and using the chords as the basis for the solo. Ensembles tended to be unisons, most jazz groups were under seven pieces, and the soloist was free to get as adventurous as possible as long as the overall improvisation fit into the chord structure. Since the virtuoso musicians were getting away from using the melodies as the basis for their solos (leading some listeners to ask "Where's the melody?") and some of the tempos were very fast, bop divorced itself from popular music and a dancing audience, uplifting jazz to an art music but cutting deeply into its potential commercial success. Ironically the once-radical bebop style has become the foundation for all of the innovations that followed and now can be almost thought of as establishment music. Among its key innovators were altoist Charlie Parker, trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie, pianist Bud Powell, drummerMax Roach, and pianist/composer Thelonious Monk. -- Scott Yanow

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