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新奥尔良爵士 New Orleans Jazz

新奥尔良爵士是指三十年代(指二十世纪,下文中如未作注明均指二十世纪)以前的传统爵士乐,兴起于新奥尔良,盛行于芝加哥,是迪克西兰爵士(Dixieland Jazz)和芝加哥爵士(Chicago Jazz)的总称。我们所能听到的最早的爵士乐就是新奥尔良爵士,它出现于1917年(第一张爵士乐唱片诞生于1917年)。从唱片的音质上辨认,这个时期的唱片大多数都是用留声机播放的密纹唱片,音质较差,带有沙沙的噪声,并且缺乏立体感(第一批立体声唱片诞生于1958年)。从音乐形象上辨认,新奥尔良爵士讲究合奏,给人的感觉是激烈、兴奋并充满生机的。乐队编制一般为小号(或短号)一至二人吹奏主旋律,单簧管一人吹奏副旋律,长号一人吹奏固定低音,贝司(或大管)、鼓各一人担任节奏。后来又增加了萨克斯,使其从此成为爵士乐队的一大特色。新奥尔良爵士作为最早的传统爵士乐已被历史永久记载,但是作为有声爵士乐的源头,如今听起来还是别具一番风味。

The earliest style of jazz, the music played in New Orleans from about the time that Buddy Bolden formed his first band in 1895 untilStoryville was closed in 1917, unfortunately went totally unrecorded. However with the success of the Original Dixieland Jazz Bandin 1917 and the many performances documented in the 1920s, it became possible to hear what this music sounded like in later years. Ensemble-oriented with fairly strict roles for each instrument, New Orleans Jazz generally features a trumpet or cornet providing a melodic lead, harmonies from the trombone, countermelodies by the clarinet, and a steady rhythm stated by the rhythm section (which usually consists of piano, banjo or guitar, tuba, or bass and drums). This music is a direct descendant of marching brass bands and, although overlapping with Dixieland, tends to de-emphasize solos in favor of ensembles featuring everyone playing and improvising together. Due to its fairly basic harmonies and the pure joy of the ensembles, it is consistently the happiest and most accessible style of jazz. -- Scott Yanow



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