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芭蕾 Ballet

古典芭蕾(classic ballet)的历史约有五百年,是沿袭宫廷芭蕾的各种技法与表现方式,虽经过了不断地改变和革新,在19世纪形成的新流派芭蕾舞。




事实上,古典芭蕾尚有浪漫派与古典派的区分。前者为十七十八世纪的舞剧《吉赛尔》。后者专指十九世纪的舞剧,如《天鹅湖》。两者较明显的差别在于舞者所穿的舞衣之不同,古典派的舞衣为纱质的短裙,称为classical tutu[1],舞鞋质地较软;而浪漫派的舞裙长及膝与踝之间,称为romantic tutu[2],舞鞋为硬式,便于舞者跐立。




除此之外,古典芭蕾依动作又可分为快舞与慢舞。快舞孕育于意大利,最大特色是跳跃与旋转,专指男舞者与女舞者随著迅速的音乐踊舞的舞蹈,所有活泼迅速而华丽的舞蹈均属之。慢舞孕育于法国,是法国舞蹈的最大特征,舞者以缓慢的动作,或以单脚支立平衡身体,构成优雅曲线之舞步与舞姿等均称为慢舞,这种舞蹈充满了纤细的美感。




在古典芭蕾舞剧中,通常以慢舞来表现男女的情爱场面,如天鹅湖中的第二幕公主与王子的双人慢舞。慢舞基本上是属于女性的舞蹈,而男舞者只是支扶女舞者的陪衬而已,对于女舞者来说,无非是一个呈现其舞艺与优美曲线的大好机会,而此时表现身体的平衡更显得格外重要。




如今快舞与慢舞虽以交互使用,但仍可视其强调的程度,来分辨意大利派的华丽与法国的浪漫气质。




While dance and music have been intertwined since their origins, the visual-corporeal-musical spectacle we call ballet has its origins in the 17th and 18th century French court. In its most common manifestations, ballet combines music and dance to tell a story. It was brought to perfection in the 19th century, peaking with France's Adolph Adam and Russia's Tchaikovsky. Stravinsky and Copland composed the most well-loved ballets of the 20th century, both representing the tradition of great ballet music arising as collaborations between composer and choreographer, such as that of John Cage and Merce Cunningham. For much of the 20th century new dance works were designated by the term "modern dance" rather than "ballet," and were more abstract in subject. Modern choreographers tend to draw eclectically on a variety of musical sources for their works. Meredith Monk is an inventive, contemporary creative figure whose works include both music and dance elements.



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