爵士说唱 Jazz Rap

爵士说唱(Jazz Hip Hop)的起源可以追溯到1920年代的爵士乐,随后受1950年代的波普(Bop)和爵士放克(Jazz Funk)、1970年代的爵士融合(Jazz Fusion)、1980年代的说唱(Hip Hop)的影响,爵士说唱(Jazz Hip Hop)——或者说Jazz-rap——作为一种流派终于在1980年代中期出现,标志为Cargo乐队1985年所发行的唱片《Jazz Rap, Volume One》和Stetsasonic在1988年发行的单曲《Talkin' All That Jazz》。

而真正推动Jazz Hip Hop发展的,是东岸说唱传奇A Tribe Called Quest在1991年发行的唱片《The Low End Theory》和爵士大师Miles Davis于1992年发行的唱片《Doo-Bop》,尤其是前者:RIAA认证白金唱片,《滚石》杂志史上500强唱片第154位,曾入选《时代》杂志史上100强唱片。这两张唱片的器乐演奏姿态属于Jazz,但Beats却是Hip Hop风格,演唱方式也为Rap。同时期还有一大批爵士艺术家和Eastcoast Hiphop歌手同样尝试过Jazz Hip Hop音乐,如Herbie Hancock、Digable Planets 、Us3、Naughty by Nature、De La Soul、Camp Lo甚至大名鼎鼎的“街头诗人”Nas等等,由此,Jazz Hip Hop的发展终于在90年代中期走上正轨,这段时期的代表唱片为《Hand on the Torch》、《Illmatic》、《Uptown Saturday Night》。时间跨过千禧年,众多深受Jazzhiphop影响的音乐人开始活跃起来,譬如J. Rawls、Nujabes、Fat Jon、Madlib、Kero One、Kondori等等。

在这里要提一下Nujabes这位日本音乐人,他将Jazzhiphop传播到东方,同DJ Okawari等日本Hiphoper对日本和中国的Underground Hiphop产生了很深的影响,其代表唱片为《Modal Soul》。而在2010年代的今天,Jazzhiphop的故事仍在继续。(以上多处资料出自维基百科,转自http://weibo.com/u/5129710977的编译)

(2nd ed. London: Rough Guides, 2005) lists Louis Armstrong's 1925 recording of "Heebie Jeebies" in his timeline of hip hop. In the 1970s, The Last Poets, Gil Scott-Heron, and The Watts Prophets placed spoken word and rhymed poetry over jazzy backing tracks. There are also parallels between jazz and the improvised phrasings of freestyle rap. Despite these disparate threads, jazz rap did not coalesce as a genre until the late 80s.

Beginnings of a trend:
In 1985, jazz fusion band Cargo, led by Mike Carr, released the single "Jazz Rap", appearing on the album Jazz Rap, Volume One [1]. In 1988, Gang Starr released the debut single "Words I Manifest", sampling Dizzy Gillespie's 1952 "Night in Tunisia", and Stetsasonic released "Talkin' All That Jazz", sampling Lonnie Liston Smith. Gang Starr's debut LP, No More Mr. Nice Guy (Wild Pitch, 1989), and their track "Jazz Thing" (CBS, 1990) for the soundtrack of Mo' Better Blues, further popularized the jazz rap style.

Native Tongues:
Groups making up the collective known as the Native Tongues tended toward jazzy releases: these include the Jungle Brothers' debut Straight Out the Jungle (Warlock, 1988) and A Tribe Called Quest's People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths of Rhythm (Jive, 1990) and The Low End Theory (Jive, 1991). The Low End Theory has become one of hip hop's most acclaimed albums, and also earned praise from jazz bassist Ron Carter, who played double bass on one track. De La Soul's Buhloone Mindstate (Tommy Boy, 1993) featured contributions from Maceo Parker, Fred Wesley, and Pee Wee Ellis, and samples from Eddie Harris, Lou Donaldson, Duke Pearson and Milt Jackson.Also of this period was Toronto-based Dream Warriors' 1991 release And Now the Legacy Begins (4th & B'way/Island/PolyGram). It produced the hit singles "My Definition of a Boombastic Jazz Style" and "Wash Your Face in My Sink". The first of these was based around a loop taken from Quincy Jones' "Soul Bossa Nova", while the second sampled Count Basie's 1967 rendition of "Hang On Sloopy". Meanwhile, Los Angeles hip hop group Freestyle Fellowship pursued a different route of jazz influence in recordings with unusual time signatures and scat-influenced vocals.

Jazz artists come to hip hop:
Though jazz rap had achieved little mainstream success, jazz legend Miles Davis' final album (released posthumously in 1992), Doo-Bop, was based around hip hop beats and collaborations with producer Easy Mo Bee. Davis' ex-bandmate Herbie Hancock returned to hipp influences in the mid-nineties, releasing the album Dis Is da Drum in 1994. Jazz musician Branford Marsalis collaborated with Gang Starr's DJ Premier on his Buckshot LeFonque project that same year.

Digable Planets' 1993 release Reachin' (A New Refutation of Time and Space) was a hit jazz rap record sampling the likes of Don Cherry, Sonny Rollins, Art Blakey, Herbie Mann, Herbie Hancock, Grant Green, and Rahsaan Roland Kirk. It spawned the hit single "Rebirth of Slick (Cool Like Dat)". Also in 1993, Us3 released Hand on the Torch on Blue Note Records. All samples were from the Blue Note catalogue. The single "Cantaloop" was Blue Note's first gold record.

This period was the high-water mark for jazz rap's popularity among hip hop listeners, following which it came to be regarded for a time as a trend which was "played out". Musical jazz references became less obvious and less sustained, and lyrical references to jazz certainly more rare. However, jazz had been added to the palette of hip hop producers, and its influence continued throughout the 1990s whether behind the gritty street-tales of Nas (Illmatic, Columbia, 1994), or backing the more bohemian sensibilities of acts such as The Roots and Common Sense. Since 2000 it can be detected in the work of producers such as J. Rawls, Nujabes, Fat Jon, Madlib, Kero One, and the English duo The Herbaliser, among others. A project somewhat similar to Buckshot Le Fonque was Brooklyn Funk Essentials, a New York based collective who also released their first LP in 1994. Prince himself contributed to the genre on some songs from 1991-1992, as well as with his New Power Generation album Gold Nigga, which mixed jazz, funk and hip-hop and was released very confidentially.

One hip hop project which continued to maintain a direct connection to jazz was Guru's Jazzmatazz series, which used live jazz musicians in the studio. Spanning from 1993 to 2007, its four volumes assembled jazz luminaries like Freddie Hubbard, Donald Byrd, Courtney Pine, Herbie Hancock, Kenny Garrett and Lonnie Liston Smith, and hip hop performers such as Kool Keith, MC Solaar, Common, and Guru's Gang Starr colleague DJ Premier.

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