唱盘主义 Turntablism

Turntablism(唱盘主义)一词最早是由Beat Junkies的DJ Babu于1995年时提出,用以描绘起源于Hip-Hop之Djing,Scratchin’的先进唱片音乐形态,更与Hip-Hop中的DJ Battle Culture息息相关。.最早将唱盘当作音乐演奏乐器使用,应该是出现在John Cage的1939年作品“Imaginary Landscape NO.1”,之后其于1958年发表的“Twenty Five Retrospective Concert Of The Music Of Joh Cage”中依旧运用了相同概念。.继而到了70年代初期,来自牙买加的DJ Kool Herc将唱盘运用在Hip-Hop音乐中;他利用两台唱机以及一些具有相类似性质的唱片,诞生出所谓的Break-beats。1977年时,Grand Wizard Theodore发明了“Skratch”,可说是彻底地改变了DJ Culture。而Skratch手法到90年代发展更多元化,派别也不断推陈出新,当中包括了DJ Falre的“Flare”,DJ Q-Bert与DJ Disk的“Crab”,Mix Master Mike的“Tweak”等,这些都成为日后Turntablism的重要因子。

Even though DJs like Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa, and Grand Wizard Theodore were the leading figures of hip-hop during the 1970s, by the time rap hit the mainstream in the mid-'80s, the MC had begun taking over the stage. After all, to have any chance at radio airplay and commercial crossover, tracks obviously needed a vocal focus. Inevitably, the mixers responsible for the first hip-hop street jams were inevitably pushed to the back. Though the balance will probably never be righted, the increasing focus on all aspects of rap culture during the mid-'90s resulted in the emergence of Turntablism as a separate style. The stars here were the DJs, and instead of tight rhymes and smooth flow in their repertoire, they had scratching, spinbacks, phasing, and two-turntable acrobatics (or beat juggling). Some of the most popular mixers (DJ Shadow, most notably) constructed their mixes with literally thousands of records at their disposal, and the more obscure the better. Most were either drum breaks from rare jazz, soul, or funk records (instructional and educational records were also popular, given the nonsensical vocal samples). The avant-garde figureChristian Marclay began constructing turntable symphonies in the early '80s, using material from a variety of musical sources. In 1987, a relic of the disco era named the Disco Mix Club (later just DMC) held its first mixing championship. The contest soon became the stage for turntablists to flaunt their talents and earn the respect of their peers. Excellent second-generation DJs like QBert,Mixmaster Mike, DJ Apollo, and Rob Swift became leading figures of the emerging turntablism, some as individuals and some as part of new turntablist collectives like Invisibl Skratch Piklz, the X-Men (later the X-Ecutioners), and the Beat Junkies. Though albums by turntablists never quite crossed over to rock audiences, a new breed of mixer -- exemplified by DJ Shadow -- earned acclaim in critical quarters by downplaying the role of live performance and physical skills in favor of full-length studio works of art.

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