摇滚 Rock & Roll

从最纯粹的形式来讲,所谓摇滚,就是三和弦加强硬持续的鼓点加上口的旋律。早期摇滚的音乐来源非常广泛,主要的包括布鲁斯、R&B、和乡村音乐,其它还有福音音乐、传统的流行乐、爵士、以及民间音乐。所有的这些影响加在一起构成了一种简单的以布鲁斯为基础的歌曲结构,它是快速的、适于跳舞的、而且容易让人记住的。第一批摇滚明星们 — Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, Bo Diddley, Bill Haley, Gene Vincent, the Everly Brothers, Carl Perkins,还有好多其它的明星 — 确立了摇滚乐的模式,并且在以后的四十年内都一直为人们所追随。在每一个十年当中,总是有很多艺人复制着第一批摇滚乐手们的音乐,而剩下的那些艺人,有的扩大了摇滚原先的定义、有的则彻底打破了这种流派被限定的模式。从英式入侵、民间摇滚、迷幻摇滚,再到硬摇滚、重金属、华丽摇滚,再到朋克,事实上每一种摇滚的分支流派在产生的最初都是忠于摇滚最基本的结构的。但是一旦这样的改变发生,传统的摇滚就从流行榜上渐渐消失了 — 当然,也有一些艺人始终都保持着光芒。有一些乐队,比如 the Rolling Stones 和 the Faces,他们始终坚持着传统摇滚最基本的规则,但他们把音乐做得更加快速更加自由。其它的一些乐队,比如原型朋克the Velvet Underground, the New York Dolls, 以及 the Stooges,他们保留了基础的音乐结构,但他们的行为中有了更多威吓性的元素。还有一些艺人成为了摇滚的传统主义者,比如 Dave Edmunds 和 Graham Parker, 他们写的歌出的唱片,从来就没有离开过50年代末60年代初的摇滚模式。虽然在摇滚出现后的这几十年里,摇滚这个词已经开始指代越来越多不同的音乐风格,但是这种音乐的本质从未改变过。

In its purest form, Rock & Roll has three chords, a strong, insistent back beat, and a catchy melody. Early rock & roll drew from a variety of sources, primarily blues, R&B, and country, but also gospel, traditional pop, jazz, and folk. All of these influences combined in a simple, blues-based song structure that was fast, danceable, and catchy. The first wave of rock & rollers -- Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, Bo Diddley, Bill Haley, Gene Vincent, the Everly Brothers, and Carl Perkins, among many others -- set the template for rock & roll that was followed over the next four decades. During each decade, a number of artists replicated the sound of the first rockers, while some expanded that definition and others completely exploded the constrictions of the genre. From the British Invasion, folk-rock, psychedelia, and through hard rock, heavy metal, glam rock, and punk, most subgenres of rock & roll initially demonstrated an allegiance to the basic structure of rock & roll. Once these permutations emerged, traditional rock & roll faded away from the pop charts, yet there were always artists that kept the flame alive. Some, like the Rolling Stones and the Faces, adhered to the basic rules of traditional rock & roll but played the music fast and loose. Others, like proto-punk rockers the Velvet Underground, the New York Dolls, and the Stooges, kept the basic song structure, but played it with more menace. Still others, like Dave Edmunds and Graham Parker, became rock & roll traditionalists, writing and recording music that never wavered from the sound of the late '50s and early '60s. Although the term "rock & roll" came to refer to a number of different music styles in the decades following its inception, the essential form of the music never changed.

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