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放克 Funk

放克(Funk)是一种美国的音乐类型,起源于1960年代中期至晚期,非裔美国人音乐家将灵魂乐、灵魂爵士乐和节奏蓝调融合成一种有节奏的、适合跳舞的音乐新形式。放克“不再强调旋律与和声,而强调电贝斯与鼓的强烈节奏律动”。放克歌曲通常建立在单一和弦上的衍伸性即席伴奏,不同于节奏蓝调和灵魂乐围绕在和弦进行(chord progression)。

基本特征
如同其他受非洲音乐影响的音乐,放克通常具有一种借助电吉他、电贝斯、电子琴以及爵士鼓作伴奏而成的复杂的舞动感。放克艺术家们有时还会加入由萨克斯风、小号和长号演奏的“管乐部分”,以便加强乐曲的节奏“冲击感”。

放克风格的艺术家也会演奏迪斯科和灵歌,而放克音乐的小样也被广泛地使用在嘻哈音乐、浩室音乐和敲打贝斯中。同时,go-go风格作为放克音乐的子类别的一种,受到了较大放克音乐影响。

流行时段
1960年代中晚期、1970年代

英文简介

Funk originated in the mid-1960s by musicians who began mixing the genres of Rhythm & Blues, Soul, and Jazz. The genre is characterized by a strong groove, usually carried out by bass guitar or drumkits, a prominent use of extended chords, and a percussive guitar style using a wah pedal. Funk usually focuses less on melody and more on the danceable rhythm and groove.

One of the founders of funk was James Brown, who implemented a signature groovy sound by emphasizing the downbeat and singing in a distinctly emphatic voice. Other seminal acts in funk include Sly & The Family Stone, Funkadelic and Parliament (both headed by George Clinton who created the P-Funk sound), and The Meters.

Funk has also been fused with numerous genres, such as jazz (for Jazz-Funk), Latin-associated genres (for Latin Funk), and Rock (for Funk Rock).

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, funk expanded even further, incorporating elements from Disco, Electro, and Hip Hop. During this time Prince and Rick James along with others were vital in the development of Synth Funk.

Funk also advanced in countries outside of the United States of America. In West Africa, a particular blend of Vodoun and funk arose, resulting in what many call Afro-Funk. The most important artist of this style was T.P. Orchestre Poly-Rythmo de Cotonou. In Nigeria, Fela Kuti melded Highlife, Yoruba music, and funk to create what is known as Afrobeat. India, Ethiopia, and some European countries all had a hand in the development of distinct funk styles that broke away from the American norms.(by Rateyourmusic)



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