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节奏布鲁斯 Rhythm & Blues

节奏布鲁斯(英文:Rhythm and Blues,简称:R&B或RnB,中国大陆作节奏布鲁斯,台湾、港澳、马新作节奏蓝调 ),又称节奏怨曲。是一种美国非裔艺术家首先采用,并融合了爵士乐、福音音乐和布鲁斯音乐的音乐形式。这个音乐术语由是美国告示牌(Billboard)于1940年代末所提出。

这个术语最初在1947年的美国被公告牌杂志的Jerry Wexler创造为一个音乐的市场营销术语,取代了种族音乐(英语:Race Music,又译黑人音乐;最初来源于黑人社群,但是被战后的社会认为是会令人很不愉快的词语)而Billboard在1949年将其分类为Harlem畅销排行榜。这个词最初被用于定义包含了12种布鲁斯格式和一种带有节拍背景爵士乐的摇滚音乐,后来这种音乐转变成了一种摇滚乐的基本元素。

在《Rock & Roll: An Unruly History》(1995)中 Robert Palmer 把节奏布鲁斯定义为那些约定俗成、用来意指任何一种美国黑人创造的音乐。在他1981年出版的《Deep Blues》中, Palmer 用“R&B”作为跳跃布鲁斯的缩写。

Lawrence Cohn是《Nothing But the Blues》的作者,写到节奏布鲁斯是一个宣传人员为了产业便利所发明的, 除了古典音乐和宗教音乐,节奏布鲁斯包括了所有的黑人音乐,除了那是一首福音歌并且其销售足以打入流行榜。

在1960年代,节奏布鲁斯被用于总括灵魂乐和放克音乐的术语。而现在R&B的缩写差不多一直被用于代替全写“节奏布鲁斯”,而主流则用它来表示由迪斯科逐步变得不那么流行而发展出来的Contemporary R&B──一种现代灵魂乐和受放克音乐影响的流行音乐。

英文简介
Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated to R&B and RnB, is a genre of popular African-American music that originated in the 1940s.The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular.

The term has subsequently had a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s, the term rhythm and blues was frequently applied to blues records.Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music. By the 1970s, rhythm and blues was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "Contemporary R&B".



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