芝加哥灵魂乐 Chicago Soul

芝加哥灵魂乐(Chicago Soul)是灵魂乐(Soul)的子风格,出现在1960年代的芝加哥。在当时的美国有三个灵魂乐重镇,包括底特律——Motown厂牌的源头,以及孟菲斯——拥有众多硬朗粗粝的灵魂乐表演者,也是孟菲斯灵魂乐(Memphis soul)之乡,而芝加哥,则通过Chicago Soul普及了灵魂乐的发行方式——不是单曲而是唱片,它在1970年代带来了灵魂乐革命。

Chicago soul和南方灵魂乐(southern soul)一样,都有鲜明的黑人福音元素的影响,但是相比后者的“粗线条”的感觉,Chicago soul的声音更加轻巧细腻一些。通常伴有松弛甜美的和声、大型的管弦乐团、入耳的旋律,演唱人也运用了更多流行乐的方式去诠释,它也被称为福音灵魂乐中的“软灵魂乐”。


Chicago soul is a style of soul music that arose during the 1960s in Chicago. Along with Detroit, the home of Motown, and Memphis, with its hard-edged, gritty performers (see Memphis soul), Chicago and the Chicago soul style helped spur the album-oriented soul revolution of the early 1970s.

The sound of Chicago soul, like southern soul with its rich influence of black gospel music, also exhibited an unmistakable gospel sound, but was somewhat lighter and more delicate in its approach. Chicago vocal groups tended to feature laid-back sweet harmonies, while solo artists exhibited a highly melodic and somewhat pop approach to their songs.

Accompaniment usually featured highly orchestrated arrangements, with horns and strings, by such notable arrangers as Johnny Pate (who largely worked with horns) and Riley Hampton (who specialized in strings). This kind of soul music is sometimes called “soft soul”, to distinguish it from the more harsh and gospelly “hard soul” style.

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