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回响 Dub

听起来比雷鬼还要沉,并且加入了大量的echo、reverb与delay等效果,让歌曲产生极大的空间感,所以dub基本上就是一种录音的技术,最早出现在1967年,当DJ发现在舞厅中放雷鬼,其实跳舞的群众还蛮爱跟着唱,所以干脆把主唱抽掉,可以让大家合唱,或者是即兴的乱唱,到了1969年,一些人开始创作只有些许主唱的雷鬼歌曲,最早这么作的是U-Roy,他是一个DJ,后来dub大师King Tubby拿U-Roy的歌去重新混音,King Tubby干脆把主唱整个抽掉,并加入了前述的几个效果,马上出现了跟雷鬼感觉不太一样的歌曲,dub也就这样开始了,可是到了1973年开始,才有 dub专辑,当时King Tubby帮几个制作人Bunny Lee与Augustus Pablo等人混音,到了1976年,dub已经变成牙买加很受欢迎的音乐,仅次于最传统的、最草根的雷鬼,也在这个时候传入了英国,这都拜Island 这个英国厂牌所赐,而当初玩雷鬼的一些人,像是Burning Spear与Black Uhuru等也都开始尝试dub,到了80年代,Mad Professor与dub打击乐大师Adrian Sherwood对英国的dub场景贡献卓越,尤其是他所创立的厂牌On-U Sound,90年代,科技日新月异,也让英国出现更多dub乐团,靠着高科技,他们可以更随心所欲的玩dub,也让dub出现了更多种的面貌,像是 ambient dub、experimental dub以及techno-dub等,dub的代表人物与团体有King Tubby、Scientists、Augustus Pablo、The Congos、Keith Hudson、Lee “Scratch” Perry、Prince Jammy以及Sly & Robbie等,较近期的则有Dub Syndicate、知名制作人Bill Laswell等,dub早已成为电子音乐的一个重要元素,知名trip-hop乐团Massive Attack(强烈冲击)就曾经找过Mad Professor料理他们的混音专辑,“嘻哈美国”中也提到,hip hop音乐常用的取样(sampling)概念,其实是来自King Tubby,所以,如果没有dub,就不会有现在这么多面貌的电子音乐。 Dub derives its name from the practice of dubbing instrumental, rhythm-oriented versions of reggae songs onto the B-sides of 45 rpm singles, which evolved into a legitimate and accepted style of its own as those re-recordings became forums for engineers to experiment with the possibilities of their mixing consoles. The practice of re-recording reggae tracks without vocals dated back to 1967, when DJs found that dancehall crowds and partygoers greatly enjoyed being given the opportunity to sing the lyrics themselves. Around 1969, some DJs began talking, or "toasting," over these instrumentals (known as "versions"), frequently reinterpreting the already familiar original lyrics. The most important early DJ was U-Roy, who became renowned for his ability to improvise dialogues with the recorded singers; U-Roy ran the sound system owned by engineer King Tubby, who mixed all of the instrumental tracks over which his DJ toasted. Eventually, Tubby began to experiment with remixing the instrumental tracks, bringing up the level of the rhythm section, dropping out most or all of the vocals, and adding new effects like reverb and echo. The results were seen by many reggae fans as stripping the music down to its purest essence. 45-rpm singles with dub versions on the B-sides became ubiquitous, and King Tubby's credit on the back soon became a drawing card in and of itself. Full-fledged dub albums began to appear in 1973, with many highlights stemming from Tubby's mixes for producers Bunny Lee and Augustus Pablo (the latter of whom also played the haunting melodica, which became one of dub's signature added elements); other key early producers included the minimalistic Keith Hudson and the colorful, elaborate Lee "Scratch" Perry. By 1976, dub's popularity in Jamaica was second only to Rastafarian roots reggae, and the sound had also found acceptance the U.K. (thanks largely to the Island label), where roots reggae artists like Burning Spear and Black Uhuru became just as well-known for their forays into dub. The Mad Professor and the experimental Adrian Sherwood helped Britain's dub scene remain vital in the '80s, but in spite of skilled newcomers like Scientist, Prince Jammy, and Mikey Dread, Jamaican popular taste had by then shifted to DJ toasters and lyrical improvisers, which led to the prominence of dancehall and ragga. The downtempo atmospherics and bass- and rhythm-heavy textures of dub had a lasting influence outside of reggae, beginning with Public Image Ltd.'s 1979 Metal Box/Second Edition album; during the '90s, dub was frequently incorporated into the melting-pot eclecticism of underground avant-garde rock, and Britain's thriving electronica/drum'n'bass scene owed a great deal to dub's mixing and production techniques.



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