巴基斯坦 | 卡瓦里 Qawwali

“Qawwali”是巴基斯坦的一种传统的民间音乐形式,大约出现于九世纪时,是一种建立在类似“Tala”的节奏和 “Raga”的旋律基础上进行即兴表演的音乐。此种音乐多使用传统的印度乐器,诸如Tabla、Sarangi(印度一种古老的弓弦乐器)等,充满北印度古典音乐自由多变的特质,不过“Qawwali”更偏重于演唱,用人声来进行即兴演唱或与乐器相互对答。
这么多年来,一个家族始终统制着这个音乐领域,几乎所有杰出的“Qawwali”演唱者都出自于一个叫做“The Khans of Pakistan”的家族而这个家族中最为显赫当数巴基斯坦已故的卡瓦里音乐家Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan,他的音乐不但被形容为「来自天堂的声音」,更成功地将巴基斯坦卡瓦里传统乐风融合西方音乐元素而受到世人的瞩目,进而把巴基斯坦卡瓦里音乐推上世界音乐的舞台。


Qawwali (Nastaʿlīq: قوّالی; Gurmukhī: ਕਵਾਲੀ; Devanāgarī: क़व्वाली; Eastern Nagari: ক়ব্বালী) is a form of Sufi devotional music popular in South Asia, particularly in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan, aside at Hyderabad, Delhi and other parts of India as well as Dhaka, Chittagong, Sylhet and many parts of Bangladesh. It is a musical tradition that stretches back to more than 700 years.
Originally performed mainly at Sufi shrines or dargahs throughout South Asia, it has also gained mainstream popularity. Qawwali music received international exposure through the work of the late Pakistani singer Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, largely due to several releases on the Real World label, followed by live appearances at WOMAD festivals. Other famous Qawwali singers include Pakistan's Sabri Brothers, Bahauddin Qutbuddin and Aziz Mian.

The roots of Qawwali can be traced back to 8th century Persia (today's Iran and Afghanistan). During the first major migration from Persia, in the 11th century, the musical tradition of Sema migrated to South Asia, Turkey and Uzbekistan. Amir Khusro Dehelvi of the Chisti order of Sufis is credited with fusing the Persian and Indian musical traditions to create Qawwali as we know it today in the late 13th century in India. The word Sama is often still used in Central Asia and Turkey to refer to forms very similar to Qawwali, and in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, the formal name used for a session of Qawwali is Mehfil-e-Sama.
Qaul (Arabic: قَوْل) is an "utterance (of the prophet)", Qawwāl is someone who often repeats (sings) a Qaul, Qawwāli is what a Qawwāl sings.

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