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印度 | 拉格 Raga

“拉格”(Raga,梵语的"raga",意热情。)被称为印度古典音乐的灵魂,也是印度古典音乐的基本调(Tune),也可说是旋律的种子。它是一种旋律的框架。它有很多种,每种拉格都有自己特有的音阶,音程以及旋律片断,并表达某种特定的味(Rasa),但拉格本身只是一种框架,它要靠音乐家的即兴表演加以丰富、完善。
拉格原意为色彩(Color)或热情(Passion),因此拉格企图藉特定音符组合的旋律,来引领聆听者的情绪和感情,由五个到七个的音符所组成的基本旋律,做自由的变化。这种先人所制定的旋律型(Raga) 北印度有3百种,但很多也失传了,有谱可循的拉格有80余种,如今常用的约60余种。在传统习惯上,不论是演唱或演奏,要点选的拉格是完全依据时间、季节、情绪来决定的,早晨、中午、晚上或春夏秋冬,悲伤、喜悦或敬神等拉格是不容混淆的。拉格不只是固定的旋律型,由于加上时间、加上更细致等抽象的情境情绪的诉求和即兴的技巧、演奏长短、速度的掌控,因此表演者也是创作者,具有作曲家的能力,才算得上是胜任称职的印度的音乐家。

A raga (literally "colour, hue" but also "beauty, melody"; also spelled raag, raaga, ragam; pronounced rāga, rāg or rāgam) is one of the melodic modes used in Indian classical music.
A raga uses a series of five or more musical notes upon which a melody is constructed. However, the way the notes are approached and rendered in musical phrases and the mood they convey are more important in defining a raga than the notes themselves. In the Indian musical tradition, rāgas are associated with different times of the day, or with seasons. Indian classical music is always set in a rāga. Non-classical music such as popular Indian film songs and ghazals sometimes use rāgas in their compositions.
Joep Bor of the Rotterdam Conservatory of Music defined Raga as "tonal framework for composition and improvisation." Nazir Jairazbhoy, chairman of UCLA's department of ethnomusicology, characterized ragas as separated by scale, line of ascent and descent, transilience, emphasized notes and register, and intonation and ornaments.



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