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蒙古 | 呼麦 Throat Singing

“呼麦”是图瓦文xoomei的中文音译,又名“浩林·潮尔”,原义指“喉咙”,即为“喉音”,一种藉由喉咙紧缩而唱出“双声”的泛音咏唱技法。“双声”(biphonic)指一个人在演唱时能同时发出两个高低不同的声音。另外,呼麦又称“蒙古喉音”。呼麦作为一种歌咏方法,主要流传于中国内蒙古,南西伯利亚的图瓦、蒙古、阿尔泰和哈卡斯(Khakass)等地区。西藏密宗格鲁派的噶陀(Gyuto)、噶美(Gyume)两寺,也有使用低沉的喉音来唱诵经咒的传承。

呼麦是一种古老的歌唱方式,声音从喉底里发出来,悠悠远远地往一个很深很深的隧道里面钻,那个隧道是时间的记忆。据说,呼麦已经有千年历史,而今已是蒙古国宝级的艺术,在全世界独一无二。国家非常重视非物质文化遗产的保护,2006年5月20日,蒙古族呼麦经国务院批准列入第一批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。2009年10月1日,中国蒙古族呼麦成功入选世界非物质文化遗产名录。


Throat Singing is a type of singing in which the singer manipulates the resonances (or formants) created as air travels from the lungs, past the vocal folds, and out the lips to produce a melody.
The partials (fundamental and overtones) of a sound wave made by the human voice can be selectively amplified by changing the shape of the resonant cavities of the mouth, larynx and pharynx. This resonant tuning allows the singer to create apparently more than one pitch at the same time (the fundamental and a selected overtone), while in effect still generating a single fundamental frequency with his/her vocal folds.



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