犹太 | 克莱兹梅尔 Klezmer

Klezmer (克莱兹梅尔) 由希伯来语中的「kley」(乐器)和「zemer」(歌) 所组成,意思是「犹太音乐家」。Klezmer音乐最常出现在波兰、罗马尼亚、俄国和乌克兰等地的犹太人教堂或小区 (非犹太人小区也有) ,一般多在结婚生子的喜庆场合中演奏,且以各种形式的舞曲居多。除了小提琴、黑管、手风琴等乐器演奏外,多半以Yiddish语 (伊第绪,一种混合德语和希伯莱语的犹太语言) 发音演唱,电影《屋上提琴手》里的音乐就是相当典型的Klezmer。

十七世纪以来,中东欧的犹太人 (Ashkenazic) 在音乐自主性上保有了较大的权力 (相对于南欧拉丁语系的Sephardic犹太人而言) ,在历经一千多年的流离漂泊后,音乐方面受到了异族文化的影响而产生变化,二次大战以色列建国后,犹太音乐的重心也从欧洲转到了美洲,甚至与爵士乐或乡村音乐融合,Klezmer更是其中代表,传统中从事音乐演奏的犹太乐师多半以口耳相传,因此职业和业余乐手在技巧上的差距颇大,现在则加入许多学院派从事考察、整理旧曲目与创作新曲的工作,Giora Feidman是最具知名度的Klezmer黑管大师,无论在古典乐坛或世界音乐领域中都很活跃。

Klezmer (Yiddish: כליזמר or קלעזמער (klezmer), pl.: כליזמרים (klezmorim), כליזמר from Hebrew: כלי זמר‎ — instruments of music) is a musical tradition of the Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern Europe. Played by professional musicians called klezmorim, the genre originally consisted largely of dance tunes and instrumental display pieces for weddings and other celebrations. In the United States the genre evolved considerably as Yiddish-speaking Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe, who arrived between 1880 and 1924, met and assimilated American jazz. During the initial years after the klezmer revival of the 1970s, this was what most people knew as klezmer, although in the current century musicians have begun paying more attention to the "original" pre-jazz traditions as revivalists including Josh Horowitz, Yale Strom, and Bob Cohen have spent years doing field research in Eastern/Central Europe. Additionally, late immigrants from the Soviet Union such as German Goldenshtayn brought their surviving repertoires to the United States and Israel in the 1980s.

Compared to most other European folk music styles, little is known about the history of klezmer music, and much of what is said about it must be seen as conjecture. Starting in 2008, "The Other Europeans" project, funded by several EU cultural institutions, spent a year doing intensive field research in Moldavia under the leadership of Alan Bern and scholar Zev Feldman. They wanted to explore klezmer and lautari roots, and fuse the music of the two "other European" groups. The resulting band now performs internationally. As with this ensemble, groups like Di Naye Kapelye and Yale Strom & Hot Pstromi have incorporated Rom musicians and elements since their inceptions.

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