朋克 Punk Rock

朋克摇滚是最原始的摇滚乐----由一个简单悦耳的主旋律和三个和弦组成。其变化在于朋克摇滚将过去的旧式摇滚演奏得更快速更激昂。由于有些乐队片面地理解了朋克音乐的风格----包括60年代的车库摇滚乐队和the velvet underground, the stooges, the new york dolls----直到70年代中期朋克音乐流派才正式形成。西方的许多新生乐队不再强调区别于主流硬核摇滚的超音乐形式,而是直指音乐的本质。纽约的第一只朋克乐队是the ramones; 在伦敦则以sex pistols为代表。尽管他们的音乐表现不尽相同----the ramones显得轻快随意,相比之下the pistols更强调了重复段落表达-----可是这些独特的尝试革命性地影响了美式音乐和英式音乐的风格。朋克音乐在美国一直低调地存在,最终在80年代孕育了硬核摇滚和独立摇滚概念。而在英国,朋克摇滚则成为大众的宠儿。sex pistols被看作是对政府和君主制的严重颠覆。更重要的是,有越来越多的乐队加入了朋克摇滚。一些乐队几乎照搬了pistols的原始风格,另一些则创出了属于自己的新的元素,如buzzcocks的尖锐摇滚,clash的赞美诗般的瑞格摇滚,以及wire 和 joy division的艺术试验。不久,朋克分裂为后朋克(比原先更具艺术性和试验性),新浪潮(更具东方流行意味),和硬核摇滚(一种形式上更激烈更快速更具侵略性的朋克音乐)。整个八十年代,英国和美国都将朋克的定义与硬和摇伦联系在一起。90年代初,一批朋克复兴主义者----以green day和rancid为代表----从美国地下乐坛浮出。这一批新生力量将朋克音乐重新带回到最初的风格道路上,并尝试着在其音乐中加入重金属元素。

Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United Kingdom, United States, and Australia. Rooted in garage rock and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music, punk rock bands eschewed perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. Punk bands created fast, hard-edged music, typically with short songs, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; many bands self-produced recordings and distributed them through informal channels.
The term "punk" was first used in relation to rock music by some American critics in the early 1970s, to describe garage bands and their devotees. By late 1976, bands such as the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned in London and Television and the Ramones in New York City were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement. The following year saw punk rock spreading around the world, and it became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream. An associated punk subculture emerged, expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.

By the beginning of the 1980s, faster, more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi! had become the predominant mode of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk also pursued a broad range of other variations, giving rise to post-punk and the alternative rock movement. At the start of the 21st century, pop punk had been adopted by the mainstream, as bands such as Green Day, The Offspring and Blink-182 brought the genre widespread popularity.

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