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实验电子 Experimental Electronic

电子音乐与其说是高科技的产物,不如说是时代的产物,与过去的摇滚乐有所不同,它更提倡青年人的参与精神,每一个电子音乐的追随者都坚信只有TECHML近乎一百分贝的震撼,才能使人获得心跳每分钟一百三十下的刺激与享受。它要求并不是用耳朵去听,而是要用全身心去感觉。电子音乐的宗旨是爱、和平、团结,这倒与联合国宪章有着异曲同工之妙,对于电子音乐的崇拜者来说,他们推崇的是少说话多思索的人生态度,追求人性中的真善美,并试图以一种博爱精神和世界大同的家庭观念来消除竞争社会中人与人之间的隔阂与冷漠。 
  然而,通常电子乐是指当它刚成形时艺术家们通过电子设备所探索出的各种独一无二的声响,以及后人们所创造出的继承这些先驱们的作品。前卫作曲家们长时间的着迷于利用先进的技术手段,创造那些前所未有的电子声响。法国作曲家Edgard Vare是这个领域的一个先驱,早在上世纪20年代就发明了自己的电子乐设备,50年代一直在实验磁带延时技术。Vare的工作极大的影响了美国前卫艺术家John Cage和德国作曲家Karheinz Stockhausen,后两位极大的扩展了电子乐的曲式结构。然而,直到上世纪70年代,音序器和合成器变得越来越便宜和 简便时,电子乐才真正的进入大众的视野。1968年,Wendy Carlos发行了一张带有迷幻性质的Bach专辑,使用Moog合成器实现了Bach的一些音乐片断。这张专辑在公众中引起了极大的反响,Stockhausen对电子乐器的推广也在德国引起了实验音乐的风潮——Krautrock(德国摇滚)。诸如Can和Neu!等乐队开始将合成器和磁带机的使用带入他们的实验,但是这场风潮中最重要的乐队还是Kraftwerk和Tangerine Dream(橙梦)。 Kraftwerk开创了在pop中使用合成器的新观念,他们机器人般的,机械的,催眠性的形式极大的影响了20世纪几乎所有的电子乐。同时,Tangerine Dream受到简约古典作曲技法的启发,创造了一种称为space的音乐形式,顾名思义,这是一种氛围舒缓的, 曰没惚的音乐。其他重要的艺人还包括Klaus Schulze,他探索了比space还要迷幻的音乐形式;Brain Eno,对于电子元素在pop中的应用有着创造性的发明和实验,可是他最出名还是他的ambient music(氛围音乐)——一种依靠合成器创造出某种环境的音乐类型。 Ambient和space音乐引发了后来的new age(新世纪),后者强调的是一种安宁的,平和的,深邃的氛围并且旋律及其优美。Progressive electronic(激进电子乐)是new age的一个分支,它表现的是一种更加戏剧化,管弦乐使用更多的形式,从而打破了电子乐根基中的简约风格。此外,诸如synth-pop,techno和electronica等音乐形式也都在早期的电子乐基础上有了很大的创新。

Electronic is a broad designation that could be construed to cover many different styles of music -- after all, electronic instrumentation has become commonplace, and much dance-oriented music from the late '80s on is primarily, often exclusively, electronic. However, in this case, it refers mostly to electronic music as it took shape early on, when artists were still exploring the unique possibilities of electronically generated sound, as well as more recent music strongly indebted to those initial experiments. Avant-garde composers had long been fascinated with the ways technology could be used to produce previously unheard textures and combinations of sounds. French composer Edgard Varèse was a pioneer in this field, building his own electronic instruments as early as the 1920s and experimenting with tape loops during the '50s. Varèse's work was hugely influential on American avant-gardist John Cage and German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen, both of whom greatly expanded the compositional structures in which electronic devices could be incorporated. But electronic music didn't really begin to enter the wider consciousness until around the 1970s, when sequencers and synthesizers became more affordable and easier to obtain. Wendy Carlos' 1968 Switched-On Bach album, a selection of Bach pieces performed on the Moog synthesizer, had ignited tremendous public attention, and Stockhausen's teachings had begun to inspire a burgeoning experimental music scene in Germany. Krautrock groups such as Can and Neu! integrated synthesizers and tape manipulations into their rabid experimentalism, but the two most important electronic artists to emerge from the scene were Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream. Kraftwerk pioneered the concept of pop music performed exclusively on synthesizers, and their robotic, mechanical, hypnotic style had a tremendous impact on nearly all electronic pop produced in the remainder of the 20th century. Tangerine Dream, meanwhile, was indebted to minimalist classical composition, crafting an atmospheric, slowly shifting, trance-inducing sound that helped invent the genre known as space music. Other crucial figures included Klaus Schulze, who explored a droning variation on space music that was even more trancelike than Tangerine Dream, and Brian Eno, whose inventive production and experiments with electronics in a pop context eventually gave way to his creation of ambient music, which aimed to blend thoroughly into its environment and often relied heavily on synthesizers. Ambient and space music helped give rise to new age, which emphasized the peaceful, soothing, and meditative qualities of those influences while adding greater melodicism; the progressive electronic branch of new age crafted a more dramatic, lushly orchestrated style that broke with electronic music's roots in minimalism. Synth-pop, techno, and its artier companion electronica all owed a great deal to the basic innovations of early electronic artists as well.



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