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自由即兴 Free Improvisation

自由即兴音乐代表了前卫音乐人对彻底的、不妥协姿态的创作自由追求的顶点。即兴意味着毫无准备之下的演绎,意味着要在当时当地即时创作音乐。
即兴不是新鲜事物:古典音乐作曲家(如Mozart)便是技艺高超的即兴表演者。自由即兴音乐则让音乐艺人随心所欲,置任何规条于不顾,节奏、和声、旋律,甚至对乐器自身的物理完整性的尊重,全都被粉碎。“自由即兴”表演者通过他的乐器和演奏传达出自己的创造力,与可能给人的仿佛印象相比,自由即兴演绎实际上要艰难许多,它要求大量的音乐和心理上的训练,因为音乐人必须达到一种高水平的专注力,一种将自己赤裸裸地表现在观众面前的能力,如果不是单独表演(也不想被孤立的话),他还需要聆听他人的即兴,以便与之互动。


Free improvisation represents the culmination of the avant-gardist musician¹s quest for complete, uncompromised freedom. To improvise means to perform without preparation, to make music on the spot. Improvising is nothing new: classical composers like Mozart were accomplished improvisers. But free improvisation lets the musician do whatever he wants, regardless of any rule. Rhythm, harmony, melody, even respect for the physical integrity of the instrument itself (preparations and home-built instruments are often used) are shattered. The free improviser channels his creative energy through his instrument and plays. A lot harder than it may seem, free improvising requires extensive musical and psychological training, as the musician must attain a high level of concentration, an ability to metaphorically strip naked in front of the audience, and if he is not performing alone, to listen to the other improvisers in order to interact with them if he doesn¹t want to get isolated. Free improvisers come from very diverse backgrounds -- jazz (Cecil Taylor, Derek Bailey), rock (Thurston Moore), electronica (Fennesz, Jim O'Rourke, Voice Crack), even classical (Patrick Scheyer, Aki Takase) -- and perform in settings ranging from solo to large groups called creative orchestras.

Free improvisation is not the same as free jazz, although some key musicians like Bailey and Taylor came from such a background. Free jazz often remained anchored in its originating idiom, using heads and licks to structure the improvised material. There is no such thing in free improvisation -- being freed of all rules, it cannot be traced back to a genre other than the very generic term "avant-garde." As a style, free improv started to emerge in the late 1960s, mainly on the Berlin and London scenes, when people like Peter Brötzmann and the musicians revolving around (and trained by) John Stevens started to push American free jazz into more abstract territories. Brötzmann¹s 1968 LP Machine Gun shattered the world of free jazz and pioneered a form of improv characterized by extreme energy levels. Around Stevens and his Spontaneous Music Ensemble, a group of musicians developed an approach to improvisation relying on listening, toning down, trying to "become" the other musicians while being oneself, instead of attempting to outplay the other participants. This school of free improv is best exemplified by the productions released on the record label Emanem. In the late 1990s/early 2000s, an even more radical approach to free improvisation emerged, based on silence and the use of very short, very fragmented musical gestures. People like John Butcher, Axel Dörner, Franz Hautzinger and Radu Malfatti first explored these extremes.



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