人声爵士 Vocal Jazz

Vocal Jazz(人声爵士) 尽管并不是全部采用人声爵士,20世纪的人声爵士演绎大师大都采用爵士语言进行演奏。从Russ Columbo,Doris Day到Johnny Mathis均将其天才与嗓音用于内容的表达。他们放弃了爵士器乐演奏家惯用的演绎标准的方式,而利用其即兴演奏的天赋,音乐家的素养,甚至个性化,带给了歌词新的意义。早期的一对巨匠,Louis Armstrong,Bing Crosby,留下了人声爵士的标准:随意却不失焦点。几乎就是当时人声爵士的专业标准。从大乐队集中的地区涌现出了大批爵士演唱家,几乎都是后来的大师级人物:Frank Sinatra, Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Anita ODay, Sarah Vaughan,Peggy Lee, Joe Williams;他们均和摇摆舞乐队共事过很长一段时间,多数在人声爵士风格开始时因此取得了巨大成功。尽管区分人声爵士演唱家与传统流行乐歌手并不总是那么容易,很多爵士节目单还是以演奏内容来作目录的。人声爵士与爵士独奏家们展开了竞争。他们那时通常拒绝与无名乐队和具有流行音乐元素的乐队合作。而选择与真正天赋禀异的组织者(Nelson Riddle, Billy May)以及真正伟大的作家合作(Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, the Gershwins)。和40, 50年代的人声爵士演唱家汲取了摇摆舞的风格一样,后波普歌手们也用他们自己的经验来演绎疯狂的节拍,实验爵士器乐演奏家的独奏。Lambert, Hendricks, Ross陶醉在狂热的合声中,而Betty Carter, Mark Murphy, Abbey Lincoln 则发掘出更激进的即兴演奏方式。尽管70到80年代,人声爵士演奏家日趋减少,还是有很多艺术家坚持不懈,继续这种风格。 Most of the 20th century's great vocalists performed in the jazz idiom, though not all rank in the style known as vocal jazz. While singers from Russ Columbo to Doris Day to Johnny Mathis relied on talent and vocal strength alone to carry material, vocal jazz artists instead chose to interpret standards in much the same way as the great jazz instrumentalists, so their readings of the great American songbook required talents related to improvisation, musicianship, harmony, even personalization to bring new meanings to the lyrics. A pair of early giants, Louis Armstrong and Bing Crosby, recorded distinctive readings of standards, relying on a delivery that was casual yet very focused — an almost total break with the professional vocal traditions of the past. From the big-band era came dozens of major jazz vocalists, and in fact, most of the best: Frank Sinatra, Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Mel Tormé, Anita O'Day, Sarah Vaughan, Peggy Lee, Joe Williams; all of them worked long hours touring with swing bands, and most were repaid in kind with major success during the post-war era, when the style really bloomed. Though it wasn't always easy separating jazz vocalists from traditional pop singers, many in the jazz repertoire usually earned the tag by delivering variations of their material in performance or scatting in emulation of a jazz soloist. They also generally refused no-name orchestras and generic pop hits of the day, preferring instead the work of talented arrangers (Nelson Riddle, Billy May) and truly great composers (Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, the Gershwins). Singers of the post-war era began stretching the concepts of not swing but bop, interpreting the frantic tempoes and exploratory solos of jazz instrumentalists with their own vocal experiments. Lambert, Hendricks & Ross indulged in manic harmonies, while a host of singers (including Betty Carter, Mark Murphy, and Abbey Lincoln) explored different charts, radical material, and much improvisation. Even while the ranks of jazz vocalists thinned during the 1970s and '80s, many artists continued in the style.

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