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葡萄牙 | 法朵 Fado

法朵/法多(葡萄牙语:Fado,意为命运或宿命),或称葡萄牙怨曲,是葡萄牙著名的传统民谣。

法朵是一种已经具有一百五十多年历史的葡萄牙音乐,在大街小巷的酒馆、都会里的咖啡室和会所都可听得到,其地位相当于西班牙著名的弗拉明戈舞蹈。这种音乐擅长表达哀怨、失落和伤痛的情怀。特殊的吉他乐声与独唱者的特有腔调,空灵动人,令听者无不感到的哀凄。

葡萄牙悲歌法朵来历不明,有阿拉伯、吉卜赛和更多的黑人血统。据称,其真正源于刚果,黑人将此歌舞形式带至巴西,但直至1819年,才有人在里约热内卢街头看到混血儿表演法朵。

1850年左右,法朵才来到葡萄牙,以唱为主。民间歌手们面向特茹河,为海员泣歌,凄怆动人。一时,妻女竞相习唱。

19世纪末,科英布拉大学生将少年男女爱情主题引入法朵,形成“北部唱法”。

在20世纪,主流的法多表演只包括一个歌手,一个葡萄牙吉他手和一名古典吉他手,经常还会加入低音吉他。乐器演奏传统上由男性完成。不过更为近代的演出阵容包括了从歌手,到弦乐四重奏,再到整支管弦乐队。虽然在以旅游业为主的餐厅,法多的演唱往往局限于一人独唱,不过在里斯本的非商业性质的法多集会上,能有多达十二名与会者自发参与到演唱中。此时每位歌手都热情地演唱一小段,加上自己想出来的歌词,紧跟着迎来换场时的掌声喝彩。在非商业性质的法多餐厅,一种良好的交流方式便是演唱过程中时时叫好鼓励。另外,一曲精湛演绎的法多结束后,观众应该先预留明显几秒的停顿,再开始鼓掌。

目前,法朵最为有名的歌手是葡萄牙女歌手Mariza。


Fado (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈfaðu], "destiny, fate") is a music genre which can be traced to the 1820s in Portugal, but probably with much earlier origins. Fado historian and scholar Rui Vieira Nery states that "the only reliable information on the history of Fado was orally transmitted and goes back to the 1820s and 1830s at best. But even that information was frequently modified within the generational transmission process that made it reach us today." In popular belief, fado is a form of music characterized by mournful tunes and lyrics, often about the sea or the life of the poor, and infused with a characteristic sentiment of resignation, fatefulness and melancholia (loosely captured by the word saudade, or "longing"). However, although the origins are difficult to trace, today fado is regarded, by many, as simply a form of song which can be about anything, but must follow a certain structure. The music is usually linked to the Portuguese word saudade which symbolizes the feeling of loss (a permanent, irreparable loss and its consequent lifelong damage). Famous singers of fado include Amália Rodrigues, Dulce Pontes, Carlos do Carmo, Mariza, Mafalda Arnauth, António Zambujo, Ana Moura and Cristina Branco.
On 27 November 2011, Fado was inscribed in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.



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