|地区：||United States of America 美国|
|风格：||根源唱作人 Singer-Songwriter, 民谣摇滚 Folk Rock, 政治民谣 Political Folk, 当代民谣 Contemporary Folk|
英文名：Bob Dylan 中文名：鲍勃·迪伦
原名：Robert Allan Zimmerman
Sara Dylan（1965.11.22结婚；1977.6.29离婚） 4个孩子
1941年5月24日他生于明尼苏达州德卢斯（又译杜勒斯）城，原名Robert Allan Zimmerman，6 岁时全家移居到一个叫希宾（Hibbing）的靠近矿区的小镇上。他在希宾附近的高中上学时，他在一个摇滚乐队中进行了一段短暂的演出，然后到位于明尼阿波利斯的明尼苏达大学学习了1年。在那里，罗伯特·齐默尔曼名为鲍勃·迪伦，他开始成名是在民歌界的圣地纽约格林尼治村。他决心成为一位“著名的民歌手”，并不顾他少年时期的许多其他音乐的影响，朝着这一方面扬起风帆。
少年时期的鲍勃·迪伦只不过是一个喜爱音乐的平凡男孩，对乡村乐感兴趣。以Arthur Rimband、Hank Williams, James Dean, Woody Guthrie 和 Robert Johnson为偶像。直到14岁时，他在戏院里看到了《Blackboard Jungle》中的摇滚狂热， 从此他发现了音乐的另一种功能——它的社会学效应。摇流乐的歌词使人振奋，反映着青少年的个性、野心与叛逆。自此以后，希宾小镇再也拴不住他的心了。
1961年1月，鲍勃·迪伦从明尼苏达州立大学辍学，开始专心致力于歌唱工作，并来到纽约Cate Wha 民谣音乐城（Folk City）和煤气灯（Gaslight）等著名的表演场所演出。
由于他的民谣歌曲受到知识分子的喜爱与支持，CBS的制作人John Hammond 与他正式签定了合约，不久Albert Closeman担任了迪伦的经纪人。此刻的迪伦是民谣风暴的煽动者，CBS 公司旗下最受重视的新人，也是年轻一代民谣歌手中最具潜力、呼声最高的艺人。
1961年经验丰富的制作人约翰·哈蒙德（John Hammond）使他与Columbia（哥伦比亚）公司签约，在他录制的最初几张唱片中，几乎没有表现出他对汉克·威廉斯（Hank Williams）或查克·贝里（Chuck Berry）的喜爱——尽管他偶尔也无意中像“埃弗利兄弟”（the Everly Brothers）那样即兴演唱。相反，迪伦的音乐在很大程度上属于民歌复兴的主流之音，而且优美动听，有时是那么光彩照人。
鲍勃·迪伦的处世作《Bon Dylan》于1962年发表。其中收录了Woody Guthrie 推崇的《Song To Wood》和谈纽约生活感触的《Talking New York》，整张专辑的风格,带有浓厚的Woody Guthrie式民谣气息。 另一方面他也采取客观的立场，来审视当时政治及社会事件，创作了不朽名曲《Blo-wing Changin》,一跃而成为超级巨星。Bob早期的一些作品是以传统旋律为基础的，后来逐渐吸取了乡村音乐的因素和黑人音乐并加以创新。Dylan 的抗议歌曲对当时青年人的心灵起了巨大的震撼作用，因而促使六十 年代美国青年的大觉醒。
他的歌曲成为参加民权和反战运动的白人学生的圣歌，有像《在风中飘荡》（Blowin’in the Wind）和《大雨将至》。（A Hard Rain’s Gonna Fall）这样的抗议歌曲，有像传统的《科里纳，科里纳》（Corrina Corrina）和以传统为基础的《来自北部乡村的女孩》（Girl from the Country）这样的爱情歌曲，还有像唱法多种多样的《我将会自由》（I Shall Be Free）这样的滑稽歌曲。
其曲调相对来说比较简单（通常取自传统民歌题材），而他的演唱技能（无论在演唱方面还是在吉他与打击乐的演奏方面）在民歌音乐界中来说是纯朴自然的，但他的影响却引人注目。迪伦正在创造一种调式，他所描绘的音乐方式不需要很复杂。他的歌喉、吉他演奏和有时不很完美的口琴声帮助确定音调，使其音乐从中得以展开并在国内引起轰动。在古巴导弹危机和核裁军运动的世界中没有什么比听迪伦演唱《战争的主人》（Masters of War）和《大雨将至》更令人振奋。
正是在这一时期（1961-1964），迪伦成为民歌界和激进分子的英雄。但在更为广大的流行音乐界中，他的歌曲却被认为不过是“最适于别人来翻唱”，其中以“彼得，保罗和玛丽”所翻唱的歌曲最为著名。由于两个原因，把这一切都改变了。第一个原因是他反复扮演的激进分子领袖的角色开始使他恼怒，这种恼怒表现在他的歌曲中，以第4张唱片《鲍勃.迪伦的另一面》（Another Side of Bob Dylan，1964）最为明显。在尚不成熟的歌曲《我的不太有价值的新闻》（My Back Pages）中迪伦对“人生是黑白相间的谎言”进行了谴责，并对其早期坚定的誓言评论说“那时我是多么的老，现在我比那时年轻了”。第二个也是更重要的原因是1963年和1964年期间英国流行音乐的革命。据报道，当迪伦第一次听到“动物”（ANIMALS）乐队演唱他的传统歌曲《旭日之家》（House of the Rising Sun）时，他“跳出汽车的座椅，因为这望权是无礼的改编。这件事在他眼前战线了一个崭新的音乐世界，并使他认识到他同时表达对查克.贝里和Woody Guthrie的热爱是可能的。他的下一张唱片名为《席卷而归》（Bringing It Back Home），微妙地论及了英国艺人唤醒了他对美国摇滚乐的兴趣的赞美。该唱片的一面录的却是摇滚乐歌曲，每隔一首歌曲录一段”滚石“（The Rolling Stones）的即兴演唱。在唱片封套上他尖刻地写着：”我已放弃对尽善尽美的追求。“他的音乐欢快而无拘无束地跳跃，他演唱的由查克.贝里的《没完没了的恶作剧》（Too Much Monkey Business）直接派生的歌曲《隐秘的思乡病布鲁斯》（Subterranean Homesick Blues）轻而易举地获得成功。
1965年8 月，Dylan的专辑《High way 61Revisited》发表，获得好评， 此时他的身价已跃升到了流行音乐的顶点，并正式确立 了摇滚音乐家的地位。七十年代Dylan 的作品吸收了Jazz 和Blues的元素，歌词充满了哲理性，带动了七十年代的美国青年，也不 再是反抗的狂热者，而是逐渐安定下来，出现了哲理性的趋向。
迪伦在方向上的转变使他失去了一些从前的追随者，但不管怎样，该唱片还有另一面，其上收录了《手鼓手》（Mr.Tambourine Man）和几乎是政治性的歌曲《好极了，妈妈》（It’s All Right，Ma）。但是他在1965-1966年间举办的以他与保罗·巴特菲尔德（Paul Butterfield）布鲁斯乐队为首的在纽波特您民歌音乐节上的演出戏剧性地分裂了他的观众，而实际上迪伦正是由于违约才变成摇滚乐界崇拜的偶像。歌曲《像一块滚石》（Like a Rolling Stone，1965年名列排行榜第2）的成功足以弥补失去的纯粹民歌观众。这一时期的唱片《重访61号公路》（Highway 61 Rivisited）和双唱片《无数金发女郎》（Blonde on Blonde），代表着鲍勃.迪伦的录音生涯的顶峰。与他合作过的乐手阿尔.库珀（KOOPER，AL）、罗比.罗伯逊（Robbie Robertson）和纳什维尔的乐手如查利.麦科伊（Charlie McCoy）和肯尼.巴特里（Kenny Buttrey），是贯彻迪伦把多年吸收的各种风格融合在一起的想法的最佳人选。这些歌曲结构仍很简单，采用陈腐的反复乐句，但它们通常更长一些、更流畅一些。库珀那丰富的风琴乐音使《近似女王简》（Queen Jane Approximately）和《像一块滚石》等歌曲具有权威性效果，迪伦的抒情诗是至关重要的，虽然现在线条的连贯性已崩溃，但却有丰富的、无数的形象蜂拥而至。他们的景象是具有强大而特殊的梦想逻辑性的内心景象。有时[在歌曲《墓碑布鲁斯》（Tombstone Blues）、《荒凉的街道》（Desolation Row）中]它充满着有关联奇怪的历史人物，有时它们机具抒情性[表现在歌曲《约翰娜的景象》（Visions of Johanna）和12分钟《洛兰兹的忧伤眼睛的女人》（Sad Eyed Lady of the Lowlands）中]，使人看到一种把布鲁斯改变成乡村音乐的原型形象。迪伦滑稽而又面无表情的幽默感在《雨天的女人们》（Rainy Day Women）和《豹皮药盒帽》（Leopard Skin Pill Box Hat）中仍明显可见。
迪伦的个人生活方式在他所创作的歌曲的千变万化的无秩序中得到准确的反映。他似乎正驱使自己以惊人的步伐前进（在几个月的时间内发行了《重访61号公路》和《无数金发女郎》等共3张唱片）。“他将成为传奇人物”，皮特·西格（Pete Seeger）说，“如果他最终没有精神失常的话”。即将发生内向爆炸的感觉在他1966年与“鹰” [The Hawks，后来变成“乐队”（The Band）]巡回演出时进行的精神发泄性演唱中特别强烈。
1966年8月迪伦的事业突然被一次摩托车祸中断，他有两年没有与公众见面，不过他的风采却无处不在，从每个主要商店的广告画到新闻界对他急切返回歌坛的不断传闻，非法销售的音乐会（如1965年在伦敦举国的著名的艾伯特大厅演出）唱片也很流行。他的沉默相反却促使他的艺术绝技有所发展，具有不同程度的轻信和明智的迪伦学家活跃起来。在1967年间迪伦与“乐队”（他1965-1966年与该乐队一起进行巡回演出）在伍德斯托克居住了一段时间，他的音乐在这种隐蔽的环境中继续发展。这一时期录制的唱片（这些唱片不久在非法交易中可以买到）被歪曲为可探查迪伦要成为新的摇滚乐歌王的想法。有些歌曲是令人狂笑的滑稽的酒后胡言，《让亨利夫人狂欢》（Please Mrs Henry）、《百万美元狂欢会》（Million Dollar Bash），但是那些较忧郁的歌曲决定了整体情绪是悔罪的、充满不详的预兆感。在歌曲《狂怒之泪》（Tears of Rage）和《太多微不足道的事》（Too Much of Nothing）中他似乎对他的过去感到罪责难逃，并对他所扮演的——公认的=不知不觉地——那些角色感到懊悔。在歌曲《我将得到解脱》（I Shall Be Released）和《着火的轮子》（Wheel’s on Fire）中似乎模模糊糊地、下意识地意识到一次迫近的、可能是迪伦演唱的所以歌曲中最有个性、最动人的。丝毫没有表现他以往出版的大多数作品中的乏味、毫无信心、也毫无骄傲之感。他以哀怨而又不加雕饰的声调演唱这些歌曲，偶尔还加入理查德.曼纽尔（Richard Manuel）的和声。迪伦与“乐队”在1967年演唱的所有歌曲被冠以《地下室磁带》（The Basement Tapes）之名非法销售，它是迪伦最有美感、最直截了当的唱片。如果说唱片《佩珀军士孤独心灵俱乐部乐队》（Sgt. Pepper）和《无数金发女郎》是对60年代新反主流文化的乐观主义之最好的庆祝，那么唱片《地下室磁带》则是对这种乐观主义的另一面的关键表达。在这一方面，它必定会被列为70年代非乌托邦式的探索流行语言的一系列主要唱片中的先驱。最后，这些唱片在录制完8年之后的1975年，在Columbia公司正式发行。
迪伦以1968年发行的唱片《约翰.韦斯利.哈丁》（John Wesley Harding）表明他对一般公众的新的态度。与复杂性（音乐的和抒情诗的）流行趋势形成鲜明对照，这些歌曲是直截了当的和简洁的，并且继续探索犯罪和自疑的主题。但是最后的两首歌《顺着小河湾走》（Down Along the Cove）和《今晚我将是你的宝贝》（I’ll Be Your Baby Tonight）趋向后来接着录制的两张乡村音乐唱片的那种柔美的音调，这两张唱片是《纳什维尔天空轮廓》（Mashville Skyline，1969）和《自画像》（Self Portrait，1970）。这些唱片给迪伦招致自1965年转向摇滚乐以来第一次真正的抨击。他被谴责倒退到乡村音乐的平淡和伤感之中，而收入其他民歌的双张唱片《自画像》则被说成不过是放纵自己。事实上，这也是早期音乐对迪伦存在影响的另一个例子：他与约翰尼.卡什（Johnny Cash）的友谊可以追溯到60年代初期，约翰尼.卡什曾与他在唱片《纳什维尔天空轮廓》中合唱了一首《来自北部乡村的女孩》。这些唱片标志着摇滚乐与乡村音乐之间具有重要意义的重新融合的开始，因为许多人，从“飞鸟”（The Byrds）乐队到琼·贝兹（Joan Baez）都跟随他在纳什维尔录制唱片。然而这些唱片是迪伦最后的一些具有先驱作用的唱片。在70年代，他对摇滚乐的发展小有作用，他的一些唱片冗长而且优劣不均。在唱片《新的早晨》（New Morning，1970）和《行星浪潮》（Planet Waves，1973）中他的发音常常是自然的、甚至是陈腐的，通常代表着远远摆脱早年那刺耳尖利的爱情歌曲传统的爱好家庭生活的角色。《帕特.加勒特与比利小子》（Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid，1973）是一张电影插曲唱片，其中包括一首经典歌曲《敲天堂之门》（Knocking on Heaven’s Door）。与70年代以往的唱片形成对照，唱片《路上的血迹》（Blood on the Tracks，1975）中包括令人痛苦的《愚蠢的风》（Idiot Wind），含义模糊的《莉莉，罗斯玛丽和杰克之心》（Lily，Rosemary，and the Jack of Hearts）和矫揉造作的《简单的命运扭曲》（A Simple Twist of Fate）等歌曲，由此可见迪伦正有意进行探索，在有关鲁本.卡特尔（Reuben Garter）被非法监禁的故事的歌曲《飓风》（Hurricane，1975）中也明显有类似的感觉。
迪伦仍受到他在前10年中所受到的注意。1971年他出版了一本片面的、超现实主义的小说《塔兰图拉》。他在萨姆.佩金帕的影片《帕特·加勒特》中扮演一个简短而突出的角色。他那为数不多的几次公开演出（为孟加拉国举办的音乐会、伍迪.格思里纪念活动）于是着对他1974年与“乐队”进行的美国巡回演出的响亮的回答。演出门票售出600万张，还录制了实况唱片《在洪水到来之前》（Before the Flood），从这张唱片可以看到迪伦和“乐队”都有效地回到他们早年最好时代。当迪伦与Columbia公司的合同期满时，他转到Asylum公司的英国公司Island。这张唱片和另一张唱片《行星浪潮》都是在Asylum公司录制出版的。与Columbia的关系一直是风波叠起的，特别在中止合同的两年和傲慢的克莱夫.戴维斯（Clive Davis）出任最高行政官以后。他试图把合作的音乐业务形象拟人化，而Asylum唱片公司的戴维.格芬则在艺人们的帮助下取得长足的进展。在这以后Columbia公司出版了有感染力的唱片《迪伦》（1974），这是一张只要迪伦歌迷才感兴趣的愤世嫉俗的选编唱片。结果，唱片《行星浪潮》与这张唱片相对较大的销售量在1974年致使迪伦与Columbia公司签订了又一个5年的合约。
70年代中期，迪伦在“滚雷”巡回演出（与琼.贝兹及其他人一起）中表现自己是同行中的音乐家。然而他被谣言和像A.J.韦伯曼（A.J.Weberman）这样的迪伦学家们的严密监视所纠缠，A.J.韦伯曼总是乐于接受对迪伦的私生活和亲以色列的同情感“揭露”的职责。他与妻子萨拉的关系并不是没有问题的，他们的关系正在恶化，即将利益的痛苦与绝望充满于唱片《路上的血迹》（1974）和《心愿》（Desire，1975）之中，后一张唱片中包含了几首与雅克.莱维（Jacques Levy）合作创作的歌曲。1977年迪伦与萨拉正式离婚。迪伦又投入到另一次“滚雷”乐队巡回演出中，并从中产生了一段长达4个小时的影片《雷纳多和克拉拉》（Renaldo and Clara），该影片中插入了一段由迪伦表演的半自传性的音乐会。1978年，即该影片上演的那一年，又发行了唱片《街头示威》（Street Legal），从这张唱片可以明显地听到迪伦正发生着宗教信仰的改变，那生动形象的描述和类似福音音乐的伴唱不久就使他着了迷。1979年迪伦声称自己是一个再生的基督教徒，宗教的主题是他后面4张唱片的核心，这4张唱片是《慢车开来》（Slow Train Coming，1979）、《得救》（Saved，1980）、《爱的爆发》（Shot of Love，1981）和《异教徒》（Infidels，1983）。1985年发行了《皇帝讽刺剧》（Empire Burlesque）和《烂醉如泥》（Knocked Out Loaded），后者是与剧作家萨姆.谢泼德和汤姆.佩蒂（PETTY，TOM）合作的。
1986年，迪伦又回来进行巡回演出。这回是与汤姆.佩蒂和为他伴奏的“伤心人”乐队一起，音乐厅和体育场中仍然人山人海。由丹尼尔.拉努瓦（Daniel Lanois）制作的怪异恐怖的《噢，天啦》（Oh Mercy）也成为迪伦成功专辑之一，由名为“永不停止的巡演”（Never Ending Tour）的巡演和1992年的专辑《像我一样对你好》（Good As I Been to You）中可以看出，迪伦的那种独特的木吉他家沙哑嗓音的民谣形式风格已日渐衰败。为庆祝迪伦50岁生日，CBS公司发行了令人注目的3张一套专辑《私录卡带系列》（The Bootlegs Series），收录了他1961-1991年的非法出版的歌曲。
迪伦的影响力主要体现在60年代，如果没有迪伦，无疑摇滚乐将走一段弯路，将不会有“披头士”（BGEATLES，THE）的《佩珀军士》（Sgt.Pepper），不会有“滚石”的《乞丐的宴会》（Beggar’s Banquet），也不会有“乐队”的《来自大平克的音乐》（Music form Big Pink），这就是他的影响程度。他对音乐的最主要的贡献，这点也影响了列农和麦卡特尼之后的很多歌手，那就是歌词的深刻寓意与音乐成为同等重要的一部分，从他一开始的抗议歌曲，就展示了他的歌词比他的音乐更浪漫、更激动人心。他对工业国家整个一代人的敏感性的形成起了很大的作用，他的音乐对理解和分析60年代是至关重要的。
纵观其音乐生涯，Bob Dylan 真正赋予了摇滚乐以灵魂。
Bob Dylan's influence on popular music is incalculable. As a songwriter, he pioneered several different schools of pop songwriting, from confessional singer/songwriter to winding, hallucinatory, stream-of-conscious narratives. As a vocalist, he broke down the notions that in order to perform, a singer had to have a conventionally good voice, thereby redefining the role of vocalist in popular music. As a musician, he sparked several genres of pop music, including electrified folk-rock and country-rock. And that just touches on the tip of his achievements. Dylan's force was evident during his height of popularity in the '60s — the Beatles' shift toward introspective songwriting in the mid-'60s never would have happened without him — but his influence echoed throughout several subsequent generations. Many of his songs became popular standards, and his best albums were undisputed classics of the rock & roll canon. Dylan's influence throughout folk music was equally powerful, and he marks a pivotal turning point in its 20th century evolution, signifying when the genre moved away from traditional songs and toward personal songwriting. Even when his sales declined in the '80s and '90s, Dylan's presence was calculable.
For a figure of such substantial influence, Dylan came from humble beginnings. Born in Duluth, MN, Bob Dylan (b. Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) was raised in Hibbing, MN, from the age of six. As a child he learned how to play guitar and harmonica, forming a rock & roll band called the Golden Chords when he was in high school. Following his graduation in 1959, he began studying art at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. While at college, he began performing folk songs at coffeehouses under the name Bob Dylan, taking his last name from the poet Dylan Thomas. Already inspired by Hank Williams and Woody Guthrie, Dylan began listening to blues while at college, and the genre weaved its way into his music. Dylan spent the summer of 1960 in Denver, where he met bluesman Jesse Fuller, the inspiration behind the songwriter's signature harmonica rack and guitar. By the time he returned to Minneapolis in the fall, he had grown substantially as a performer and was determined to become a professional musician.
Dylan made his way to New York City in January of 1961, immediately making a substantial impression on the folk community of Greenwich Village. He began visiting his idol Guthrie in the hospital, where he was slowly dying from Huntington's chorea. Dylan also began performing in coffeehouses, and his rough charisma won him a significant following. In April, he opened for John Lee Hooker at Gerde's Folk City. Five months later, Dylan performed another concert at the venue, which was reviewed positively by Robert Shelton in the New York Times. Columbia A&R man John Hammond sought out Dylan on the strength of the review, and signed the songwriter in the fall of 1961. Hammond produced Dylan's eponymous debut album (released in March 1962), a collection of folk and blues standards that boasted only two original songs. Over the course of 1962, Dylan began to write a large batch of original songs, many of which were political protest songs in the vein of his Greenwich contemporaries. These songs were showcased on his second album, The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan. Before its release, Freewheelin' went through several incarnations. Dylan had recorded a rock & roll single, "Mixed Up Confusion," at the end of 1962, but his manager, Albert Grossman, made sure the record was deleted because he wanted to present Dylan as an acoustic folky. Similarly, several tracks with a full backing band that were recorded for Freewheelin' were scrapped before the album's release. Furthermore, several tracks recorded for the album — including "Talking John Birch Society Blues" — were eliminated from the album before its release.
Comprised entirely of original songs, The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan made a huge impact in the U.S. folk community, and many performers began covering songs from the album. Of these, the most significant were Peter, Paul & Mary, who made "Blowin' in the Wind" into a huge pop hit in the summer of 1963 and thereby made Bob Dylan into a recognizable household name. On the strength of Peter, Paul & Mary's cover and his opening gigs for popular folky Joan Baez, Freewheelin' became a hit in the fall of 1963, climbing to number 23 on the charts. By that point, Baez and Dylan had become romantically involved, and she was beginning to record his songs frequently. Dylan was writing just as fast.
By the time The Times They Are A-Changin' was released in early 1964, Dylan's songwriting had developed far beyond that of his New York peers. Heavily inspired by poets like Arthur Rimbaud and John Keats, his writing took on a more literate and evocative quality. Around the same time, he began to expand his musical boundaries, adding more blues and R&B influences to his songs. Released in the summer of 1964, Another Side of Bob Dylan made these changes evident. However, Dylan was moving faster than his records could indicate. By the end of 1964, he had ended his romantic relationship with Baez and had begun dating a former model named Sara Lowndes, whom he subsequently married. Simultaneously, he gave the Byrds "Mr. Tambourine Man" to record for their debut album. The Byrds gave the song a ringing, electric arrangement, but by the time the single became a hit, Dylan was already exploring his own brand of folk-rock. Inspired by the British Invasion, particularly the Animals' version of "House of the Rising Sun," Dylan recorded a set of original songs backed by a loud rock & roll band for his next album. While Bringing It All Back Home (March 1965) still had a side of acoustic material, it made clear that Dylan had turned his back on folk music. For the folk audience, the true breaking point arrived a few months after the album's release, when he played the Newport Folk Festival supported by the Paul Butterfield Blues Band. The audience greeted him with vicious derision, but he had already been accepted by the growing rock & roll community. Dylan's spring tour of Britain was the basis for D.A. Pennebaker's documentary Don't Look Back, a film that captures the songwriter's edgy charisma and charm.
Dylan made his breakthrough to the pop audience in the summer of 1965, when "Like a Rolling Stone" became a number two hit. Driven by a circular organ riff and a steady beat, the six-minute single broke the barrier of the three-minute pop single. Dylan became the subject of innumerable articles, and his lyrics became the subject of literary analyses across the U.S. and U.K. Well over 100 artists covered his songs between 1964 and 1966; the Byrds and the Turtles, in particular, had big hits with his compositions. Highway 61 Revisited, his first full-fledged rock & roll album, became a Top Ten hit shortly after its summer 1965 release. "Positively 4th Street" and "Rainy Day Women #12 & 35" became Top Ten hits in the fall of 1965 and spring of 1966, respectively. Following the May 1966 release of the double-album Blonde on Blonde, he had sold over ten million records around the world.
During the fall of 1965, Dylan hired the Hawks, formerly Ronnie Hawkins' backing group, as his touring band. The Hawks, who changed their name to the Band in 1968, would become Dylan's most famous backing band, primarily because of their intuitive chemistry and "wild, thin mercury sound," but also because of their British tour in the spring of 1966. The tour was the first time Britain had heard the electric Dylan, and their reaction was disagreeable and violent. At the Manchester concert (long mistakenly identified as the show from London's Royal Albert Hall), an audience member called Dylan "Judas," inspiring a positively vicious version of "Like a Rolling Stone" from Dylan and the band. The performance was immortalized on countless bootleg albums (an official release finally surfaced in 1998), and it indicates the intensity of Dylan in the middle of 1966. He had assumed control of Pennebaker's second Dylan documentary, Eat the Document, and was under deadline to complete his book Tarantula, as well as record a new record. Following the British tour, he returned to America.
On July 29, 1966, he was injured in a motorcycle accident outside of his home in Woodstock, NY, suffering injuries to his neck vertebrae and a concussion. Details of the accident remain elusive — he was reportedly in critical condition for a week and had amnesia — and some biographers have questioned its severity, but the event was a pivotal turning point in his career. After the accident, Dylan became a recluse, disappearing into his home in Woodstock and raising his family with his wife, Sara. After a few months, he retreated with the Band to a rented house, subsequently dubbed Big Pink, in West Saugerties to record a number of demos. For several months, Dylan and the Band recorded an enormous amount of material, ranging from old folk, country, and blues songs to newly written originals. The songs indicated that Dylan's songwriting had undergone a metamorphosis, becoming streamlined and more direct. Similarly, his music had changed, owing less to traditional rock & roll, and demonstrating heavy country, blues, and traditional folk influences. None of the Big Pink recordings were intended to be released, but tapes from the sessions were circulated by Dylan's music publisher with the intent of generating cover versions. Copies of these tapes, as well as other songs, were available on illegal bootleg albums by the end of the '60s; it was the first time that bootleg copies of unreleased recordings became widely circulated. Portions of the tapes were officially released in 1975 as the double-album The Basement Tapes.
While Dylan was in seclusion, rock & roll had become heavier and artier in the wake of the psychedelic revolution. When Dylan returned with John Wesley Harding in December of 1967, its quiet, country ambience was a surprise to the general public, but it was a significant hit, peaking at number two in the U.S. and number one in the U.K. Furthermore, the record arguably became the first significant country-rock record to be released, setting the stage for efforts by the Byrds and the Flying Burrito Brothers later in 1969. Dylan followed his country inclinations on his next album, 1969's Nashville Skyline, which was recorded in Nashville with several of the country industry's top session men. While the album was a hit, spawning the Top Ten single "Lay Lady Lay," it was criticized in some quarters for uneven material. The mixed reception was the beginning of a full-blown backlash that arrived with the double-album Self Portrait. Released early in June of 1970, the album was a hodgepodge of covers, live tracks, re-interpretations, and new songs greeted with negative reviews from all quarters of the press. Dylan followed the album quickly with New Morning, which was hailed as a comeback.
Following the release of New Morning, Dylan began to wander restlessly. He moved back to Greenwich Village, he finally published Tarantula in November of 1970, and he performed at the Concert for Bangladesh in August 1971. During 1972, he began his acting career by playing Alias in Sam Peckinpah's Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, which was released in 1973. He also wrote the soundtrack for the film, which featured "Knockin' on Heaven's Door," his biggest hit since "Lay Lady Lay." The Pat Garrett soundtrack was the final record released under his Columbia contract before he moved to David Geffen's fledgling Asylum Records. As retaliation, Columbia assembled Dylan, a collection of Self Portrait outtakes, for release at the end of 1973. Dylan only recorded two albums — including 1974's Planet Waves, coincidentally his first number one album — before he moved back to Columbia. The Band supported Dylan on Planet Waves and its accompanying tour, which became the most successful tour in rock & roll history; it was captured on 1974's double-live album Before the Flood.
Dylan's 1974 tour was the beginning of a comeback culminated by 1975's Blood on the Tracks. Largely inspired by the disintegration of his marriage, Blood on the Tracks was hailed as a return to form by critics and it became his second number one album. After jamming with folkies in Greenwich Village, Dylan decided to launch a gigantic tour, loosely based on traveling medicine shows. Lining up an extensive list of supporting musicians — including Joan Baez, Joni Mitchell, Rambling Jack Elliott, Arlo Guthrie, Mick Ronson, Roger McGuinn, and poet Allen Ginsberg — Dylan dubbed the tour the Rolling Thunder Revue and set out on the road in the fall of 1975. For the next year, the Rolling Thunder Revue toured on and off, with Dylan filming many of the concerts for a future film. During the tour, Desire was released to considerable acclaim and success, spending five weeks on the top of the charts. Throughout the Rolling Thunder Revue, Dylan showcased "Hurricane," a protest song he had written about boxer Rubin Carter, who had been unjustly imprisoned for murder. The live album Hard Rain was released at the end of the tour. Dylan released Renaldo and Clara, a four-hour film based on the Rolling Thunder tour, to poor reviews in early 1978.
Early in 1978, Dylan set out on another extensive tour, this time backed by a band that resembled a Las Vegas lounge band. The group was featured on the 1978 album Street Legal and the 1979 live album At Budokan. At the conclusion of the tour in late 1978, Dylan announced that he was a born-again Christian, and he launched a series of Christian albums that following summer with Slow Train Coming. Though the reviews were mixed, the album was a success, peaking at number three and going platinum. His supporting tour for Slow Train Coming featured only his new religious material, much to the bafflement of his long-term fans. Two other religious albums — Saved (1980) and Shot of Love (1981) — followed, both to poor reviews. In 1982, Dylan traveled to Israel, sparking rumors that his conversion to Christianity was short-lived. He returned to secular recording with 1983's Infidels, which was greeted with favorable reviews.
Dylan returned to performing in 1984, releasing the live album Real Live at the end of the year. Empire Burlesque followed in 1985, but its odd mix of dance tracks and rock & roll won few fans. However, the five-album/triple-disc retrospective box set Biograph appeared that same year to great acclaim. In 1986, Dylan hit the road with Tom Petty & the Heartbreakers for a successful and acclaimed tour, but his album that year, Knocked Out Loaded, was received poorly. The following year, he toured with the Grateful Dead as his backing band; two years later, the souvenir album Dylan & the Dead appeared.
In 1988, Dylan embarked on what became known as "The Never-Ending Tour" — a constant stream of shows that ran on and off into the late '90s. That same year, he released Down in the Groove, an album largely comprised of covers. The Never-Ending Tour received far stronger reviews than Down in the Groove, but 1989's Oh Mercy was his most acclaimed album since 1974's Blood on the Tracks. However, his 1990 follow-up, Under the Red Sky, was received poorly, especially when compared to the enthusiastic reception for the 1991 box set The Bootleg Series, Vols. 1-3 (Rare & Unreleased), a collection of previously unreleased outtakes and rarities.
For the remainder of the '90s, Dylan divided his time between live concerts and painting. In 1992, he returned to recording with Good As I Been to You, an acoustic collection of traditional folk songs. It was followed in 1993 by another folk album, World Gone Wrong, which won the Grammy for Best Traditional Folk Album. After the release of World Gone Wrong, Dylan released a greatest-hits album and a live record.
Dylan released Time Out of Mind, his first album of original material in seven years, in the fall of 1997. Time Out of Mind received his strongest reviews in years and unexpectedly debuted in the Top Ten. Its success sparked a revival of interest in Dylan — he appeared on the cover of Newsweek and his concerts became sell-outs. Early in 1998, Time Out of Mind received three Grammy Awards — Album of the Year, Best Contemporary Folk Album and Best Male Rock Vocal. Another album of original material, Love and Theft, followed in 2001. Soon after its release, Dylan announced that he was making his own film, to star Jeff Bridges, Penelope Cruz, John Goodman, Val Kilmer, and many more. The accompanying soundtrack, Masked and Anonymous, was released in July 2003.
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|05||You Belong to Me Bob Dylan||1209234|
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